Professor Romano Amerio spoke at the Second Vatican Council about the freedom to deal with different subjects and revealed some unpublished facts. “The highlight and half secret to be respected,” he explained, “is the restriction of the freedom of the Council that John XXIII had accepted a few months earlier by concluding an agreement with the Orthodox Church, with which the Patriarchate of Moscow accepted the papal invitation to send observers to the Council, while the Pope in turn guaranteed that the Council would refrain from condemning communism. The negotiations took place in Metz in August 1962 and all the details of the time and place were explained at a press conference by Bishop Schmitt of this diocese (the Lorrain, 2/9/63). The negotiations ended with an agreement signed for the Holy See by Metropolitan Nikodim for the Orthodox Church and Cardinal Weaver, Dean of the College of Cardinals. “Moscow`s condition that the Council should not say anything about communism was therefore no secret, but its isolated publication had no impression on the general opinion, for it was not taken up and disseminated by the press as a whole, either because of the apathetic and sensitive attitude towards communism, which is common in clerical circles, or because the pope took steps to impose the act. Nevertheless, the agreement had a strong, albeit silent, effect on the Council`s direction, when the demands for an extension of the condemnation of communism were rejected to change this agreement, to say nothing about it.  Relations between the Catholic Church and the Soviet Union have been marked by long-standing ideological differences between the Catholic Church and the Soviet Union. The Holy See attempted to engage in a pragmatic dialogue with Soviet leaders during the years of the Pope of John XXIII and Paul VI. In the 1990s, the diplomatic policy of Pope John Paul II was cited as one of the main factors that led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The short papacy of John XXIII had tried to reconcile with the Russian Orthodox Church in the hope of easing tensions with the Soviet Union and contributing to world peace. The Second Vatican Council did not condemn communism, nor even mentioned in a secret agreement between the Holy See and the Soviet Union. In Pacem in terris, John XXIII also tried to prevent a nuclear war and tried to improve relations between the Soviet Union and the United States. He began a policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders to seek conditions in which Eastern Catholic Catholics could find a liberation from persecution.  Cardinal Angelo Sodano (part of the state, 1991-2006) visited Moscow in December 1999 to report the Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (see www.vatican.va/roman_curia/secretariat_state/documents/rc_seg-st_doc_12121999_sodano-moscow_en.html). In addition, Malachi Martin reports that the 1962 Vatican Moscow Pact was “only a renewal of an earlier agreement between the Holy See and Moscow” during talks that took place in 1942 at the Pontificate of Pius XII.